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360 Degree Feedback

360 Degree Feedback including sample questionnaires, forms, and items including tools to help you with your next survey project.

 

Unlike, the traditional top-down appraisal where a supervisor appraises the performance of their subordinate, 360 Degree feedback incorporates multiple perspectives by using feedback from a variety of sources. These sources include peers, subordinates, customers, self, and supervisor.

 

These types of surveys may be called multi-source feedback, multi-rater feedback, multi-level feedback, upward appraisal, peer review.

 

The results of this type of feedback process provide an understanding of how the employee is perceived from different perspectives. This process helps an individual understand how others perceive their work performance. This kind of information can guide employee development and identify training needs.

 

Feedback is essential to facilitating performance improvements. Feedback allows people to utilize their strengths to their advantage. Feedback informs employees which actions create problems for others and to know what changes may be needed.

 

Section Highlights

 

  1. Uses
  2. Benefits
  3. How it is conducted
  4. Requirements
  5. Benefits of using the Internet
  6. Demos
  7. Item Bank

 

360 Degree Feedback: Uses

Several uses for 360 Degree Feedback include:

 

  • Employee Development
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Performance Management
  • Training Needs Assessment
  • Evaluation of Teams
  • Leadership Development
  • Self-Assessment
  • Performance Metrics

This process can also be a motivator of performance improvement since it shows the participant the opinions and views of many other peers, subordinates, supervisors, and others.

Benefits

Offers additional sources for identifying performance improvement. 360 Degree Feedback offers a more complete picture of the employee’s performance. This feedback can provide guidance on skills that an employee may need to develop.

 

 

 

Principle of 360 Degree Feedback: Provides an understanding of how the employee is perceived from different perspectives.

 

How it is conducted

 

  1. Develop questionnaire A questionnaire used for 360 Degree Feedback typically contains items that are rated on a 4 to 7 point scale. These items may be developed to measure different dimensions of job performance (e.g., communication, teamwork, leadership, initiative, judgment, …). Questionnaires also typically include one or more open-ended questions to solicit written feedback. 
     Questionnaires typically include from 50 to 100 items. When estimating the amount of time to complete the questionnaire you should estimate about 1 minute per questionnaire item. 
     If using a printed questionnaire form, you should consider using forms that can be scanned into a computer. 
  2. Ensure confidentiality of participants Steps must be taken to ensure the confidentiality of the feedback results. For example, feedback ratings from several subordinates may be combined (averaged) to mask the identity of an individual subordinate. Comments or written answers to questions may be summarized in the results to mask the identity of the author. The confidentiality helps ensure that the results are genuine. 
  3. Provide training/orientation Often the feedback process involves use of one or more questionnaires, confidential information, and involvement from many different areas of an organization. Therefore, training and orientation to the feedback process is needed to facilitate a smooth feedback process. During this training/orientation, employees should be informed of what 360 Degree Feedback is and why it is being implemented at your organization. You may want to provide samples of the questionnaire items and/or feedback results. 
  4. Administer the feedback questionnaire Distribute questionnaire forms (if using printed copies) with instructions. May want to prepare answers to common questions if other employees will be assisting in the administration. If possible, post the questions and answers to your web site for easy access.
    It is important to monitor the progress through the system in order to contact employees who need to complete forms.
  5. Analyze the data Basic data analysis would include averages of ratings. More complicated analyses may include item-analysis and/or factor-analysis. Types of analyses include: Performance Dimension Summary; Summary-Performance vs. Expected; Individual Item Ratings; Item Ratings-Performance vs. Expected (normed); Highest- or Lowest-Rated Items (shows individual’s strengths and weaknesses); Group & Organizational Ranking, and Recommendations for Development.
    You may want to analyze the data by organizational division or department to assess group and organizational strengths and weaknesses. This can be used to support or promote training and organizational development. 
  6. Develop and Distribute Results Feedback results should be shared with the employee. It should not be mandatory that the employee share the results with their supervisor. However, you may want to make this an optional part of the performance review of the employee.
    Most results for an employee will include a comparison of their ratings to the ratings of their supervisor and and average of the ratings from others (peers, customers…). The comparisons may be in the form of numbers or simple bar charts.
    You may want to provide individual review sessions or group workshops conducted by a facilitator to help individuals review and understand the results and develop appropriate goals and objectives.